Sunday, March 31, 2024

The Energy of OpenAI’s Perform Calling in Language Studying Fashions

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Reworking Information Pipelines with OpenAI’s Perform Calling Characteristic: Implementing an E-mail Sending Workflow Utilizing PostgreSQL and FastAPI

Towards Data Science

The thrilling world of AI has taken one other leap ahead by the introduction of operate calling capabilities in OpenAI’s newest Giant Language Fashions (LLMs). This new characteristic enhances the interplay between people and AI, remodeling it from a easy question-and-answer format to a extra dynamic and lively dialogue.

However what precisely are these operate calling capabilities? At their core, they permit the LLM to name predefined features throughout a dialog based mostly on the enter directions. This could possibly be something from sending an e mail to fetching knowledge from a database based mostly on the context of the dialog.
The advantages and purposes of utilizing operate calling capabilities are huge. It considerably will increase the dynamic utility of AI in varied purposes, from customer support to how we construct knowledge pipelines.

Think about a customer support AI that may reply questions and carry out actions comparable to reserving appointments, sending data to an e mail tackle, or updating buyer particulars in actual time. Or take into account an information pipeline the place the LLM agent can fetch, replace, and manipulate knowledge on command.

Within the upcoming sections, we are going to discover these purposes additional and supply a step-by-step information on leveraging this new functionality by constructing an email-sending pipeline.

Determine 1: LLMs have gotten clever brokers that we will work with (picture supply)

As all the time, the code is offered on my Github.

We wish to perceive what OpenAI’s newly launched operate calling characteristic brings to the AI race. For that, let’s perceive what differentiates it from different instruments and frameworks out there, like LangChain. We already launched LangChain within the first article of this collection. It’s a standard framework for creating AI-powered purposes. The operate calling characteristic and LangChain carry distinctive benefits and capabilities to the desk and are constructed round making AI extra usable, versatile, and dynamic.

We already know that the operate calling characteristic provides an additional layer of interactivity to AI purposes. It permits the mannequin to name predefined features inside a dialog, enhancing the LLM’s dynamism and reactivity. This new characteristic can doubtlessly simplify the method of including performance to AI purposes. Builders would want to outline these features, and the mannequin might then execute them as a part of the dialog, relying on the context. The first benefit right here is its direct integration with the OpenAI fashions, which facilitates ease of use, fast setup, and a decrease studying curve for builders aware of the OpenAI ecosystem.

Alternatively, LangChain provides a complete and versatile framework designed for creating extra complicated, data-aware, and agentic AI purposes. It permits a language mannequin to work together with its atmosphere and make choices based mostly on high-level directives. Its modules present abstractions and commonplace interfaces for constructing purposes, together with fashions, prompts, reminiscence, indexes, chains, brokers, and callbacks.

LangChain’s method facilitates constructing purposes the place an LLM can persist its state throughout totally different interactions, sequence and chain calls to totally different utilities, and even work together with exterior knowledge sources. We will see these as operate calling capabilities on steroids. Thus, it’s notably helpful for builders constructing complicated, multi-step purposes that leverage language fashions. The draw back of the added complexity is that it creates a steeper studying curve to make use of it totally.

In my opinion, knowledge pipelines are among the many most fun software areas for the brand new operate calling capabilities in LLMs. Information pipelines are a vital element of any data-driven group that collects, processes, and distributes knowledge. Usually, these processes are static, predefined, and require handbook intervention for any adjustments or updates. That is the place the dynamic habits of an LLM that we mentioned above creates a chance.

Historically, database querying requires particular data of question languages like SQL. With LLMs’ capacity to name features, companies, and databases instantly, customers can retrieve knowledge conversationally with out the necessity for specific question formulation. An LLM might translate a consumer’s request right into a database question, fetch the info, and return it in a user-friendly format, all in actual time. This characteristic might democratize knowledge entry throughout totally different roles inside a corporation.

One other facet that might change is knowledge transformation. It typically requires separate knowledge cleansing and processing steps earlier than evaluation. An LLM might streamline this course of by performing knowledge cleansing and manipulation duties interactively based mostly on the consumer’s directions. Furthermore, manipulating real-time knowledge throughout a dialog permits for extra exploratory and iterative knowledge evaluation.

A 3rd use case is knowledge monitoring. It entails common checks to make sure the accuracy and consistency of information in an information pipeline. With LLMs, monitoring duties can turn out to be extra interactive and environment friendly. For example, an LLM can alert customers to knowledge inconsistencies throughout conversations and take corrective actions instantly.

Lastly, the LLMs also can automate the creation and distribution of information reviews. Customers can instruct the LLM to generate a report based mostly on particular standards, and the LLM can fetch the info, create the report, and even ship it to the related recipients.

We purpose to create a pipeline that sends an e mail to a consumer. Whereas this will sound simple, the great thing about this course of lies within the interaction of the totally different elements managed by the LLM. The AI mannequin doesn’t merely generate an e mail physique; it dynamically interacts with a database to retrieve consumer data, composes a contextually applicable e mail, after which instructs a service to ship it.

Our pipeline consists of three fundamental elements: PostgreSQL, FastAPI, and the OpenAI LLM. We use PostgreSQL to retailer our consumer knowledge. This knowledge contains consumer names and their related e mail addresses. It serves as our supply of reality for consumer data. FastAPI is a contemporary, high-performance net framework for constructing APIs with Python. We use a FastAPI service to simulate the method of sending an e mail. When the service receives a request to ship an e mail, it returns a response confirming the e-mail has been despatched. The LLM serves because the orchestrator of your complete course of. It controls the dialog, determines the mandatory actions based mostly on the context, interacts with the PostgreSQL database to fetch consumer data, crafts an e mail message, and instructs the FastAPI service to ship the e-mail.

Implementing PostgreSQL Database

The primary element of our pipeline is the PostgreSQL database the place we retailer our consumer knowledge. Organising a PostgreSQL occasion is made simple and reproducible with Docker, a platform that enables us to containerize and isolate our database atmosphere.

You first want to put in Docker to arrange a PostgreSQL Docker container. As soon as put in, you possibly can pull the PostgreSQL picture and run it as a container. We map the container’s port 5432 to the host’s port 5432 to entry the database. In a manufacturing atmosphere, please set your password as an atmosphere variable and don’t set them instantly in a command as beneath. We’re doing this technique to velocity up our course of.

docker run --name user_db -e POSTGRES_PASSWORD=testpass -p 5432:5432 -d postgres

With our PostgreSQL occasion working, we will now create a database and a desk to retailer our consumer knowledge. We’ll use an initialization script to create a customersdesk with username and e mailcolumns and populate it with some dummy knowledge. This script is positioned in a listing which is then mapped to the /docker-entrypoint-initdb.d listing within the container. PostgreSQL executes any scripts discovered on this listing upon startup. Right here’s what the script (user_init.sql) seems to be like:

CREATE DATABASE user_database;
c user_database;

CREATE TABLE customers (
username VARCHAR(50),
e mail VARCHAR(50)

INSERT INTO customers (username, e mail) VALUES
('user1', ''),
('user2', ''),
('user3', ''),
('user10', '');

The LLM is able to understanding SQL instructions and can be utilized to question the PostgreSQL database. When the LLM receives a request that entails fetching consumer knowledge, it may well formulate a SQL question to fetch the mandatory knowledge from the database.

For example, for those who ask the LLM to ship an e mail to user10, the LLM can formulate the question :

SELECT  e mail FROM customers WHERE username=’user10'; 

This enables it to fetch user10 e mail tackle from the customers desk. The LLM can then use this e mail tackle to instruct the FastAPI service to ship the e-mail.

Within the subsequent part, we are going to information you thru the implementation of the FastAPI service that sends the emails.

Creating the FastAPI E-mail Service

Our second element is a FastAPI service. This service will simulate the method of sending emails. It’s a simple API that receives a POST request containing the recipient’s identify, e mail, and the e-mail physique. It’ll return a response confirming the e-mail was despatched. We are going to once more use Docker to make sure our service is remoted and reproducible.

First, you might want to set up Docker (if not already put in). Then, create a brand new listing on your FastAPI service and transfer into it. Right here, create a brand new Python file (e.g., and add the next code:

from fastapi import FastAPI
from pydantic import BaseModel

app = FastAPI()

class Consumer(BaseModel):
identify: str
e mail: str
physique: str

async def send_email(consumer: Consumer):
return {
"message": f"E-mail efficiently despatched to {consumer.identify} with e mail {consumer.e mail}. E-mail physique:nn{consumer.physique}"

This code defines a FastAPI software with a single endpoint /send_email/. This endpoint accepts POST requests and expects a JSON physique containing the recipient’s identify, e mail, and the e-mail physique.

Subsequent, create a Dockerfile in the identical listing with the next content material:

FROM python:3.9-slim-buster

ADD . /app

RUN pip set up --no-cache-dir fastapi uvicorn


CMD ["uvicorn", "app:app", "--host", "", "--port", "1000"]

This Dockerfile instructs Docker to create a picture based mostly on thepython:3.9-slim-buster picture, a lightweight picture ultimate for effectively working python purposes. It then copies our file into the /app/ listing within the picture.

You may construct the Docker picture utilizing the command:

docker construct -t fastapi_email_service .

After which run it with:

docker run -d -p 1000:1000 fastapi_email_service

The LLM interacts with the FastAPI service utilizing a POST request. When the LLM decides to ship an e mail, it generates a operate name to the send_email operate. The arguments of this operate name include the identify, e mail, and the e-mail physique.

The operate name is processed by our Python script, which extracts the operate arguments and makes use of them to ship a POST request to our FastAPI service. The FastAPI service responds with a message indicating the e-mail was efficiently despatched.

Now, now we have all elements of our pipeline. The following part will tie every thing collectively, explaining how the LLM orchestrates the interplay between the PostgreSQL database and the FastAPI service to ship an e mail.

Integrating with OpenAI LLM

The final piece of our pipeline is the OpenAI LLM integration. The LLM serves because the orchestrator, deciphering our instructions, querying the database for consumer data, and instructing the FastAPI service to ship emails.

Our script makes use of OpenAI’s API to make chat-based completions with the LLM. Every completion request consists of a collection of messages and optionally a listing of operate specs that the mannequin might name. We begin the dialog with a consumer message, which supplies a immediate to the assistant.

Right here’s the chat_completion_request operate we use to ship a request to the API:

@retry(wait=wait_random_exponential(min=1, max=40), cease=stop_after_attempt(3))
def chat_completion_request(messages, features=None, mannequin=GPT_MODEL):
headers = {
"Content material-Sort": "software/json",
"Authorization": "Bearer " + openai.api_key,
json_data = {"mannequin": mannequin, "messages": messages}
if features is just not None:
json_data.replace({"features": features})

response = requests.publish(
return response

We use the Chat class to handle the dialog historical past. It has strategies so as to add a brand new message to the historical past and show your complete dialog:

class Chat:
def __init__(self):
self.conversation_history = []

def add_prompt(self, function, content material):
message = {"function": function, "content material": content material}

def display_conversation(self):
for message in self.conversation_history:
print(f"{message['role']}: {message['content']}")

In our use case, the LLM must work together with our PostgreSQL database and FastAPI service. We outline these features and embrace them in our completion request. Right here’s how we outline our sql_query_email and send_emailfeatures:

features = [
"name": "send_email",
"description": "Send a new email",
"parameters": {
"type": "object",
"properties": {
"to": {
"type": "string",
"description": "The destination email.",
"name": {
"type": "string",
"description": "The name of the person that will receive the email.",
"body": {
"type": "string",
"description": "The body of the email.",
"required": ["to", "name", "body"],
"identify": "sql_query_email",
"description": "SQL question to get consumer emails",
"parameters": {
"sort": "object",
"properties": {
"question": {
"sort": "string",
"description": "The question to get customers emails.",
"required": ["query"],

Once we make a completion request, the LLM responds with its supposed actions. If the response features a operate name, our script executes that operate. For instance, if the LLM decides to name the sql_query_emailoperate, our script retrieves the consumer’s e mail from the database after which provides the end result to the dialog historical past. When the send_emailoperate known as, our script sends an e mail utilizing the FastAPI service.

The primary loop of our script checks for operate calls within the LLM’s response and acts accordingly:

chat = Chat()
chat.add_prompt("consumer", "Ship an e mail to user10 saying that he must pay the month-to-month subscription charge.")
result_query = ''

for i in vary(2):
chat_response = chat_completion_request(
response_content = chat_response.json()['choices'][0]['message']

if 'function_call' in response_content:
if response_content['function_call']['name'] == 'send_email':
res = json.hundreds(response_content['function_call']['arguments'])
send_email(res['name'], res['to'], res['body'])
elif response_content['function_call']['name'] == 'sql_query_email':
result_query = query_db(json.hundreds(response_content['function_call']['arguments'])['query'])
chat.add_prompt('consumer', str(result_query))
chat.add_prompt('assistant', response_content['content'])

Once we run the script, we get the next output:

"message": "E-mail efficiently despatched to Consumer 10 with e mail",
"E-mail physique": "nnDear Consumer 10, nnThis is a reminder that your month-to-month subscription charge is due. Please make the cost as quickly as attainable to make sure uninterrupted service. Thanks on your cooperation. nnBest regards, nYour Subscription Service Workforce"

Let’s break down what occurred for us to get this output. Our immediate was “Ship an e mail to user10 saying that he must pay the month-to-month subscription charge.”. Notice that there isn’t a details about the user10e mail in our message. The LLM recognized the lacking data and understood that our operate query_emailwould permit it to question a database to get the e-mail from that consumer. After getting the e-mail, it acquired two issues proper as soon as once more: first, it ought to generate the physique of the e-mail, and second, it ought to name the send_emailoperate to set off the e-mail utilizing the FastAPI e mail service.

This text explored the operate calling characteristic by implementing a case research the place the LLM coordinates a pipeline involving a PostgreSQL database and a FastAPI e mail service. The LLM efficiently navigated the duty of retrieving a consumer’s e mail from the database and instructing the e-mail service to ship a customized message, all in response to a single immediate.

The implications of operate calling in AI fashions could possibly be huge, opening up new potentialities for automating and streamlining processes. Information pipelines might change from static and engineering heavy to dynamic entities, permitting non-technical customers to rapidly get their palms on the most recent knowledge utilizing pure language.

This text belongs to “Giant Language Fashions Chronicles: Navigating the NLP Frontier”, a brand new weekly collection of articles that can discover how one can leverage the facility of huge fashions for varied NLP duties. By diving into these cutting-edge applied sciences, we purpose to empower builders, researchers, and fans to harness the potential of NLP and unlock new potentialities.

Articles revealed thus far:

  1. Summarizing the most recent Spotify releases with ChatGPT
  2. Grasp Semantic Search at Scale: Index Tens of millions of Paperwork with Lightning-Quick Inference Occasions utilizing FAISS and Sentence Transformers
  3. Unlock the Energy of Audio Information: Superior Transcription and Diarization with Whisper, WhisperX, and PyAnnotate
  4. Whisper JAX vs PyTorch: Uncovering the Reality about ASR Efficiency on GPUs
  5. Vosk for Environment friendly Enterprise-Grade Speech Recognition: An Analysis and Implementation Information
  6. Testing the Massively Multilingual Speech (MMS) Mannequin that Helps 1162 Languages
  7. Harnessing the Falcon 40B Mannequin, the Most Highly effective Open-Supply LLM

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